1. Death by Medicine By Gary Null, PhD; Carolyn Dean MD, ND; Martin Feldman, MD; Debora Rasio, MD; and Dorothy Smith, PhD.http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2004/mar2004_awsi_death_01.htm
  2. Abbott, G.K.: Elements of Hydrotherapy for Nurses, pg.258, 1911
  3. Alba S, Nascimbeni R, Di Betta E, Villanacci V, Salerni B. Arthritis as a rare extra-intestinal manifestation of acute sigmoid diverticulitis. Dig Surg 2001;18:233-4.
  4. Alvarez WC. Origin of the so-called autointoxication symptoms. JAMA 1919;72:8-13.
  5. Alvarez WC, Freedlander BL. The rate of progress of food residues through the bowel. JAMA 1924;83:576-580.
  6. Anderson ML, Pasha TM, Leighton JA. Endoscopic perforation of the colon: lessons from a 10-year study. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:3418-22.
  7. Ashton MR, Sutton D, Nielsen M. Severe magnesium toxicity after magnesium sulphate enema in a chronically constipated child. BMJ 1990;300:541.
  8. Atkin WS, Hart A, Edwards R, Cook CF, Wardle J, McIntyre P, Aubrey R, Baron C, Sutton S, Cuzick J, Senapati A, Northover JM. Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening. BMJ 2000;320:1504-8; discussion 1509.
  9. Avinoah E, Ovnat A, Peiser J, Charuzi I. Sigmoid perforation in patients with chronic constipation. J Clin Gastroenterol 1987;9:62-4.
  10. Bail, J. P., Juglard, G., Framery, D., Deligny, M., and Charles, J. F. [Value of colonic irrigation. Long-term followed-up in 432 colostomized patients]. Presse Med 11-19-1994;23(36):1651-1654.
  11. Barloon TJ, Shumway J. Medical malpractice involving radiologic colon examinations: a review of 38 recent cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165:343-6.
  12. Bargen JA. Chronic ulcerative colitis: trends in its present-day management. Am J Digest Dis Nutrition 1934 (May);1:190-192.
  13. Barnett JM, Plotnick M, Fine KC. Intoxication after an isopropyl alcohol enema. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:638-9.
  14. Barton A, Pal B, Whorwell PJ, Marshall D. Increased prevalence of sicca complex and fibromyalgia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am Journal Gastroenterology 1999;94:1898-901.
  15. Bastedo W. Colon irrigations. New England Journal of Medicine 1928;199:865-866.
  16. Bastedo WA. Colonic irrigations: their administration, therapeutic application and dangers. JAMA 1932;98:734-736.
  17. Bastedo, Walter A.: Handbook of Physical Therapy, Counsel on Physical Therapy of AMA, Chicago, pg 447, 1931
  18. Baumel, H., Fabre, J. M., Manderscheid, J. C., Navarro, F., and Duchene, D. [Colonic irrigation for colostomies. Results of a national survey among 795 colostomized patients]. Ann.Chir 1996;50(1):30-35.
  19. Bele-Binda, Mohobo E. [A case of acute tobacco poisoning by enema] [Article in French] Ann Anesthesiol Fr. 1975;16:97-100.
  20. Bell AM. Colonic perforation with a phosphate enema. J R Soc Med 1990;83:54-5.
  21. Bertin L, Brion N, Farkkila M, Gobel H, Wessely P. A dose-defining study of sumatriptan suppositories in the acute treatment of migraine. Int J Clin Pract 1999;53:593-8.
  22. Bettman, O.L. A Practical History of Medicine (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1956), p.6.
  23. Bilotta JJ, Waye JD. Hydrogen peroxide enteritis: the snow white sign. Gastrointest Endosc 1989;35:428-30.
  24. Blanc P, Carbajal R, Paupe A, Lenclen R, Couderc S, Olivier-Martin M. [Water intoxication following preparation for barium enema] [Article in French] Arch Pediatr 1995;2:871-3.
  25. Blatt LJ. Injury of the rectum by tip of disposable enema. Arch Surg 1960;80:442.
  26. Bollen P, Goossens A, Hauser B, Vandenplas Y. Colonic ulcerations caused by an enema containing hydrogen peroxide. J Pediatr Gastroenterology Nutr 1998;26:232-3.
  27. Bonenkamp JW., Defecation disorders in children: treatment with colonic irrigation through an appendicostomy, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 May 28;149(22):1240; author reply 1240-1. Dutch.
  28. Bornside GH, Cohn I. Intestinal antisepsis: stability of fecal flora during mechanical cleansing. Gastroenterology 1969;57:569-93.
  29. Briel, J. W., Schouten, W. R., Vlot, E. A., Smits, S., and van, Kessel, I. Clinical value of colonic irrigation in patients with continence disturbances. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 1997; 40(7):802-805.
  30. Brown BT: Treating cancer with coffee enemas and diet. JAMA 269 (13): 1635-6, 1993.
  31. Cappell MS, Simon T. Fulminant acute colitis following a self-administered hydrofluoric acid enema. Am J Gastroenterol 1993;88:122-6.
  32. Carl, N. D. HMD, Carl L. Remove IT, or IT Will Remove You; The American Chiropractor; July/August 1980
  33. Carter LJ. Gastro-intestinal foci of infection in chronic deforming arthritis. Radiological study of a series of cases. J Radiol 1923;iv:426-430.
  34. Cazemier M, Felt-Bersma RJ, Mulder CJ. Anal plugs and retrograde colonic irrigation are helpful in fecal incontinence or constipation. World J Gastroenterology. 2007 Jun 14;13(22):3101-5.
  35. Centracchio P. A., Tony. Colon Hydrotherapy-A Forgotten Art; The American Chiropractor; October 1986 pp. 55-59
  36. Chang RY, Tsai CH, Chou YS, Wu TC. Nonocclusive ischemic colitis following glycerin enema in a patient with coronary artery disease. A case report. Angiology. 1995; 46:747-52.
  37. Chen JH, Shen WC. Rectal carcinoma with stercoral ulcer perforation. Hepatogastroenterology 2000;47:1018-9.
  38. Chen TS, Chen PS (1989). Intestinal autointoxication: a medical leitmotif. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 11 (4).
  39. Chertow GM, Brady HR. Hyponatraemia from tap-water enema. Lancet 1994;344:748.
  40. Church JM. Warm water irrigation for dealing with spasm during colonoscopy: simple, inexpensive, and effective. Gastrointest Endosc 2002; Nov, 56(5):672-674.
  41. Classen JN, Martin RE, Sabagal J. Iatrogenic lesions of the colon and rectum. South Med J 1975;68:1417-28.
  42. Cohan CF, Kadakia SC, Kadakia AS. Serum electrolyte, mineral, and blood pH changes after phosphate enema, water enema, and electrolyte lavage solution enema for flexible sigmoidoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 1992;38:575-8.
  43. Collins D. Colon therapy. In Joseph Pizzorno and Michael Murray, eds. A Textbook of Natural Medicine (Seattle: Bastyr University Publications, 1993). Vol. 1, no pagination.
  44. Collins JG, Mittman P. Effects of colon irrigation on serum electrolytes. Journal of Naturopathic Medicine, Vol 1, Number 1, 1990;1:4-9.
  45. Colon Hydrotherapy and its Clinical Applications. The Colon Hydrotherapists Network. Retrieved on 2005-08-31.
  46. Craig JC, Hodson EM, Martin HC. Phosphate enema poisoning in children. Med J Aust 1994;160:347-51.
  47. Cramp AJ (ed.). Nostrums and Quackery. Vols. 1 and 2. Chicago: American Medical Association Press, 1911, 1921.
  48. Cramp AJ. The JBL cascade treatment. JAMA 1912;63:213.
  49. Davenport WW. A digest of digestion. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1978.
  50. Davis, F.A.: Tabers Cyclopedia Medical Dictionary, pg. 312, 1981.
  51. De Kort, L. M., Nesselaar, C. H., van Gool, J. D., and de Jong, T. P. The influence of colonic enema irrigation on urodynamic findings in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Br.J Urol 1997;80(5):731-733.
  52. Donaldson AN. Relation of constipation to intestinal intoxication. JAMA 1922;78:884-8.
  53. Dorman, Thomas, Colonics, Townsend Letters for Doctors-July 2004 #252. Originally published in Fact, Fiction, Fraud in Modern Medicine.
  54. Dorman, Thomas, Colonics, Townsend Letters for Doctors-July 2006 #276.
  55. Dragstedt LR, Dragstedt CA, Nisbet OM. Intestinal antisepsis. Effect of antiseptics on a type of experimental intestinal toxemia. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1922;8:190-193.
  56. Dutton WF. Headache and head pains. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company, 1939.
  57. Eisele JW, Reay DT. Deaths related to coffee enemas. JAMA 1980;244:1608-9.
  58. Eliakim R, Karmeli F, Rachmilewitz D, Cohen P, Zimran A. Ozone enema: a model of microscopic colitis in rats. Dig Dis Sci 2001;46:2515-20.
  59. Elmer Lee, M. D., Ph. B., Cholera-Prevention and Treatment, New York Reprint from The Chicago Clinical Review, for April 1893.
  60. Ernst E. Colonic irrigation and the theory of autointoxication: A triumph of ignorance over science. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 1997;24:196-198.
  61. Farbin S, Davidson P, Shockley L. Perforation of the sigmoid colon by hydrostatic pressure of a public water fountain. J Emerg Med 1996;14:703-6.
  62. Fiorito, Joseph, HYDROTHERAPY COMPAIRED WITH PEG-ES LAVAGE AND AQUEOUS SODIUM PHOSPHATE AS BOWEL PREPARATION FOR ELECTIVE COLONOSCOPY: A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, SINGLE BLINDED TRAIL. ACG 2006: The American College of Gastroenterology Annual Scientific Meeting. Department/Institute: Gastroenterology, Danbury Hospital.
  63. Forbes AM. Chronic infective arthritis. Canad M Assoc J 1924;xiv:1192-1195.
  64. Franklin JL. Colonic irrigation [Questions and Answers]. JAMA 1981;246:2869.
  65. Fry RD, Shemesh EI, Kodner IJ, Fleshman JW, Timmcke AE. Perforation of the rectum and sigmoid colon during barium-enema examination. Management and prevention. Disease Colon Rectum. 1989 Sep;32(9):759-64.
  66. Friedenwald J, Morrison S. Value, limitations, indications and technic of colonic irrigations. Medical Clinics of North America, May 1935, 1611-1629.
  67. Fuchs JR, Fishman SJ. Management of spontaneous colonic perforation in ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV. J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:e1-3.
  68. Gambill, Karin, Journal to Self-Healing. Townsend Letter Nov. 2007 pg. 72-76.
  69. Gatto NM, Frucht H, Sundararajan V, Jacobson JS, Grann VR, Neugut AI. Risk of perforation after colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy: a population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:230-6.
  70. Gayer G, Zissin R, Apter S, Oscadchy A, Hertz. Perforations of the rectosigmoid colon induced by cleansing enema: CT findings in 14 patients. Abdom Imaging 2002;27:453-7.
  71. Gilbert R. Transmission of incitants of enteric disease by unsterile equipment used for administering fluid by rectum. JAMA 1938;110:1664.
  72. Gosselink MP, Darby M, Zimmerman DD, Smits AA, van Kessel I, Hop WC, Briel JW, Schouten WR. Long-term follow-up of retrograde colonic irrigation for defaecation disturbances. Colorectal Dis. 2005 Jan;7(1):65-9. Colorectal Research Group of the Department of Surgery, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
  73. Gots RE (1993). Medical hypothesis and medical practice: autointoxication and multiple chemical sensitivities. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP 18 (1): 2-12. PMID 8234915.
  74. Grosskopf I, Graff E, Charach G, Binyamin G, Spinrad S, Blum I. Hyperphosphataemia and hypocalcaemia induced by hypertonic phosphate enema–an experimental study and review of the literature. Hum Exp Toxicol 1991;10:351-5.
  75. Harrington L, Schuh S. Complications of Fleet enema administration and suggested guidelines for use in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 1997;13:225-6.
  76. Haviv YS, Safadi R, Osin P. Accidental isopropyl alcohol enema leading to coma and death. Am J Gastroenterology 1998;93:850-1.
  77. Helikson MA, Parham WA, Tobias JD. Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia after phosphate enema use in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 1997;32:1244-6.
  78. Hervey CR. A series of typhoid fever cases infected per rectum. Am J Public Health 1929;19:166-171.
  79. Hildreth AG. Fifteen years at Still-Hildreth. Journal of Osteopathy 1929;36:518-521.
  80. Hoff, H.C.: „Retrograde Intubation of the Cecum,” Am. Jour. Roent. And Rad. Ther., 20:226-232, Sept., 1928.
  81. Holden W, Orchard T, Wordsworth P. Enteropathic arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2003;29:513-30, viii.
  82. Hool GJ, Bokey EL, Pheils MT. Enema-nozzle injury of the rectum. Med J Aust 1980;1:364, 381.
  83. Horne S., Colon cleansing: a popular, but misunderstood natural therapy. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):93-100. American Herbalists Guild, St. George, UT 84791, USA.
  84. Hunt, T. Colonic irrigation. Nurs.Mirror.Midwives.J 7-5-1974;139(1):76-77.
  85. Hunt, T. C. Colonic irrigation. Practitioner 1972;208(246):523-524.
  86. International Association for Colon Hydrotherapy.
  87. Irrigating the colon. JAMA 1927;89:1804.
  88. Ismail EA, Al-Mutairi G, Al-Anzy H. A fatal small dose of phosphate enema in a young child with no renal or gastrointestinal abnormality. J Pediatr Gastroenterology Nutr 2000;30:220-1.
  89. Istre GR, Kreiss K, Hopkins RS, Healy GR, BEnziger M, Canfield TM, Dickinson P, Englert TR, Compton RC, Mathews HM, Simmons RA. An outbreak of amebiasis spread by colonic irrigation at a chiropractic clinic. New England Journal of Medicine 1982;307: 339-342.
  90. Jensen JE. Medical treatment of constipation. In Wexner SD, Bartolo DCC, Eds. Constipation: Etiology, evaluation and management. Oxford: Butterworth Heineman, 1995.
  91. Jensen-Jarolim E, Reider N, Fritsch R, Breiteneder H. Fatal outcome of anaphylaxis to camomile-containing enema during labor: a case study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102(6 Pt 1):1041-2.
  92. Johnson GA, Baker J. Colonic perforation following mild trauma in a patient with Crohn’s disease. Am J Emerg Med 1990;8:340-1.
  93. Jones SA. Anaphylaxis from rectal lubricant jelly. Am J Med 1988;85:890.
  94. Kawamata M, Fujita S, Mayumi T, Sumita S, Omote K, Namiki A. Acetic acid intoxication by rectal administration. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1994;32:333-6.
  95. Kellog, J.H. Should the colon be sacrificed or may it be reformed? JAMA LXVIII (26): 1957-1959, June 30, 1917.
  96. Kelvinson RC. Colonic hydrotherapy: a review of the available literature. Compl Ther Med 1995;3:88-92.
  97. Kim SK, Cho C, Levinsohn EM. Caustic colitis due to detergent enema. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1980;134:397-8.
  98. Kimura T, Sudo K, Kanzaki Y, Miki K, Takeichi Y, Kurosaki Y, Nakayama T. Drug absorption from large intestine: physicochemical factors governing drug absorption. Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17:327-33.
  99. Kinnane J, Priebe C, Caty M, Kuppermann N. Perforation of the colon in an adolescent girl. Pediatr Emerg Care 1995;11:230-2.
  100. Kirchner SG, Buckspan GS, O & Neill JA, Page DL, Burko H. Detergent enema: a cause of caustic colitis. Pediatr Radiol 1977;6:141-6.
  101. Klein RR, Scarborough RA. Traumatic perforation of the rectum and distal colon. Amer J Surg 1963;86:515.
  102. Kokoszka J, Nelson R. Latex anaphylaxis. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:868-72.
  103. Korman LY, Overholt BF, Box T, Winker CK. Perforation during colonoscopy in endoscopic ambulatory surgical centers. Gastrointest Endosc 2003;58:554-7.
  104. Koch SM, Uludađ O, El Naggar K, van Gemert WG, Baeten CG., Colonic irrigation for defecation disorders after dynamic graciloplasty. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008 Feb;23(2):195-200. Epub 2007 Sep 21.
  105. Korzets A, Dicker D, Chaimoff C, Zevin D. Life-threatening hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany following the use of fleet enemas. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992;40:620-1.
  106. Knobel B, Petchenko P. Hyperphosphatemic hypocalcemic coma caused by hypertonic sodium phosphate (fleet) enema intoxication. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 1996;23:217-9.
  107. Kovacs, Richard: A Manual of Physical Therapy, pg.212, 217, 1944.
  108. Krusen FH. Colonic irrigation. JAMA 1936;106:118-121.
  109. Krusen FH. Physical Medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1941.
  110. Kurt TL, Morgan ML, Hnilica V, Bost R, Petty CS. Fatal iatrogenic iodine toxicity in a nine-week old infant. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1996;34:231-4.
  111. Lane WA. Some remarks on chronic intestinal stasis. Lancet 1918;ii:416-417.
  112. Large PG, Mukheiber WJ. Injury to rectum and anal canal by enema syringes. Lancet 1965;2:596.
  113. Larson GE. Rectal perforation by disposable enema tip: report of a case. Disease Colon Rectum 1966;9:447-8.
  114. Ledley GS, Shenk IM, Heit HA. Sigmoid colon perforation due to endometriosis not associated with pregnancy. Am J Gastroenterology 1988;83:1424-6.
  115. Lefevre, O. [Colonic irrigation]. Soins.Chir 1989;(98):42-45.
  116. Lestár B, Polányi C, Bihari L, Garcia J, Vörös A. [Antegrade colonic enema is a choice for the treatment of faecal incontinence and constipation] Magy Seb. 2007 Aug;60(4):210-4. Hungarian.
  117. LeRoy B.R., Jr., A.B., D.O. The pH in Colonic Therapy. Pub. Fidelity Pub. Co.; Fidelity Bldg., Tacoma, WA 1933.
  118. Lim JF, Tang CL, Seow-Choen F, et al. Prospective, randomized trial comparing intraoperative colonic irrigation with manual decompression only for obstructed left-sided colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 2005;48(2):205-209.
  119. Lindsley CB, Schaller JG. Arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease in children. J Pediatr 1974;84:16-20.
  120. Locke G.R. 3rd, JH Pemberton, SF Phillips (2000). AGA Technical Review on Constipation. Gastroenterology 119 (6): 1766-1778. American Gastroenterological Association.
  121. Lockhart-Mummery P. Diseases of the Rectum and Colon and Their Surgical Treatment, 2nd Ed. Baltimore: William Wood & Co., 1934; Bargen JA. Colitis. M. Bull. Vet. Admin 1934;11:1-9.
  122. Lozynsky OA, Dupuis L, Shandling B, Gilmour RF, Zimmerman B. Anaphylactoid and systemic reactions following saline enema administration. Six case reports. Ann Allergy 1986;56:62-6.
  123. Marshall H. The place of colon therapy in the mentally ill. Medical Record 1936;144:8-11.
  124. Martin RR, Lisehora GR, Braxton M Jr, Barcia PJ. Fatal poisoning from sodium phosphate enema. Case report and experimental study. JAMA 1987;257:2190-2.
  125. Messina, B. and Grassi, M. [Hydrotherapy in colonic diseases]. Clin Ter. 6-30-1978;85(6):619-629.
  126. McMillin DL, Richards DG, Mein EA, Nelson CD. The abdominal brain and enteric nervous system. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1999;5:575-86.
  127. Merar T. Colonic irrigations. JAMA 1961;175:642.
  128. Meyer CT, Brand M, DeLuca VA, Spiro HM. Hydrogen peroxide colitis: a report of three patients. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 1981;3:31-5.
  129. Meyers PH. Contamination of barium enema apparatus during its use. JAMA 1960;173:1589-1590.
  130. Michael KA, DiPiro JT, Bowden TA, Tedesco FJ, Whole bowel irrigation for mechanical colon cleansing. Med. College of Georgia, Rm. CJ-112, Augusta, GA 30912, Clin. Pharm.; VOL 4 ISS Jul-Aug 1985, P414-424.
  131. Misselbeck WJ, Gray KR, Uphold RE. Latex induced anaphylaxis: a case report. Am J Emerg Med 1994;12:445-7.
  132. Morgan WG, Hite OL. Physical therapy in gastro-intestinal conditions. In Principles and Practice of Physical Therapy. Hagerstown, MD: W. F. Prior Company 1:18, Chapter 21, 1932.
  133. Munoz-Navas M, Garcia-Villareal L. Caustic colitis due to formalin enema. Gastrointest Endosc 1992;38:521-2.
  134. Muranishi S. Characteristics of drug absorption via the rectal route. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1984;6:763-72.
  135.  Nebraska Health and Human Services System. Requirements for Licensure of Chiropractic.
  136. Nelson RL, Abcarian H, Prasad ML. Iatrogenic perforation of the colon and rectum. Dis Colon Rectum. 1982;25:305-8.
  137. Nurse Hua JH, Surgeon Zhao Fa, Guo LinLi. Colon Hydrotherapy for Pre-endoscopy preparation. Hebei Medical Journal, Dec 2004, Vol 25, No. 12.
  138. Orchard JL, Lawson R. Severe colitis induced by soap enemas. South Med J 1986;79:1459-60.
  139. Ortega JA, Creek JE. Acute cyanide poisoning following administration of Laetrile enemas. J Pediatr 1978;93:1059.
  140. Palm O, Moum B, Jahnsen J, Gran JT. The prevalence and incidence of peripheral arthritis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, a prospective population-based study (the IBSEN study). Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001;40:1256-61.
  141. Paran H, Butnaru G, Neufeld D, Magen A, Freund U. Enema-induced perforation of the rectum in chronically constipated patients. Disease Colon Rectum 1999;42:1609-12.
  142. Pemberton R. The nature of arthritis and rheumatoid conditions. JAMA 1920;lxxv:1759-1765.
  143. Pemberton R. Arthritis and rheumatoid conditions: Their nature and treatment. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1935.
  144. Petrakis, Dr., King, Dr., Constipation and Breast Cancer. The Lancet, British Medical Journal, 1982, and Saturday Evening Post, April, 1982.
  145. Person JR, Bernhard JD. Autointoxication revisited. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:559-63.
  146. Persson GA. Gastrointestinal infections in chronic arthritis. N. York M. J. 1923;cxviii:363-366.
  147. Pert CB, Ruff MR, Weber RJ, Herkenham M. Neuropeptides and their receptors: A psychosomatic network. J Immunol.1985;135:820S-826S.
  148. Pizzetti D, Annibali R, Bufo A, Pescatori M., Colonic hydrotherapy for obstructed defecation, Colorectal Dis. 2005 Jan;7(1)
  149. Rees JR, Pannier MA, McNees A, Shallow S, Angulo FJ, Vugia DJ. Persistent diarrhea, arthritis, and other complications of enteric infections: a pilot survey based on California FoodNet surveillance, 1998-1999. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38 Suppl 3:S311-7.
  150. RICHARDS,DOUGLAS G. Ph.D., DAVID L. MCMILLIN, M.A., ERIC A. MEIN, M.D., and CARL D. NELSON, D.C. Colonic Irrigations: A Review of the Historical Controversy and the Potential for Adverse Effects., THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE Volume 12, Number 4, 2006, pp. 389-393.
  151. Riley SA, Kim M, Sutcliffe F, Rowland M, Turnberg LA. Absorption of polar drugs following caecal instillation in healthy volunteers. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1992;6:701-6.
  152. Robinson B. The abdominal and pelvic brain. Hammond, IN: Frank S. Betz, 1907.
  153. Roland CG, Rogers AG. Rectal perforation after enema administration. Canad Med Assoc J 1959;81:815.
  154. Russell WK. Colonic lavage, fallacies and facts. British Journal of Physical Medicine 1933;8:24-26.
  155. Russell, W. Kerr. Colonic irrigation. (Edinburgh: Livingstone, 1932).
  156. Sacha M. Koch, Özenç Uludađ, Kadri El Naggar, Wim G. van Gemert and Cor G. Baeten, Colonic irrigation for defecation disorders after dynamic graciloplasty, International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Volume 23, Number 2 / February, 2008.
  157. Saltzstein RJ, Quebbeman E, Melvin JL. Anorectal injuries incident to enema administration. A recurring avoidable problem. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1988;67:186-8.
  158. Satterlee GR, Eldridge WW. Symptomatology of the nervous system in chronic intestinal toxemia. JAMA 1917 (Oct. 27);69:1414-1418.
  159. Schapira M, Gerard R, Deltenre P, Henrion J, Ghilain JM, Maisin JM, Schmitz A, Heller FR. An unusual cause for left sided colitis: hot-water enema. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 1996;59:220-1.
  160. Schmelzer M, Wright KB. Enema administration techniques used by experienced registered nurses. Gastroenterol Nurs 1996;19:171-5.
  161. Schmelzer M, Case P, Chappell SM, Wright KB. Colonic cleansing, fluid absorption, and discomfort following tap water and soapsuds enemas. Appl Nurs Res 2000;13:83-91.
  162. Schmelzer M, Wright K. Risky enemas: what’s the ideal solution? Am J Nurs. 1993 Jul;93(7):16.
  163. Scott J. Perforation of the rectum by enema tip. Illinois Medical Journal 1960;117:240.
  164. Sentongo TA, Lichtenstein G, Nathanson K, Kaplan P, Maller E. Intestinal perforation in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome after enema treatment for constipation. J Pediatr Gastroenterology Nutr 1998;27:599-602.
  165. Shevchuk N.A., Med Hypotheses, Hydrotherapy as a possible neuroleptic and sedative treatment. 2008;70(2):230-8. Epub 2007 Jul 20.
  166. Sisco V, Brennan PC, Kuehner CC. Potential impact of colonic irrigation on the indigenous intestinal microflora. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1988;11:10-16.
  167. Smith R. The surgical relief of intestinal foci in cases of arthritis deformans. Ann Surg 1922;lxxvi:515-518.
  168. Smithies F. Colon filling stations. JAMA 1926;87:691.
  169. Snyder RG, Fineman S. A clinical and roentgenologic study of high colonic irrigations as used in the therapy of subacute and chronic arthritis. Am J Roentgenol 1927 Jan;17:27-43.
  170. Soper H. Colon irrigations. JAMA 1932;98:1677-1678.
  171. Steinbach HL, Rousseau R, McCormack KR, Jawetz E. Transmission of enteric pathogens by barium enemas. JAMA 1960;174:1207-8.
  172. Stemmerman, William. Intestinal Management for Longer, Happier Life. (Asheville, NC: Arden, 1928).
  173. Sternberg A, Iuchtman M, Auslander L, Sternberg E, Robinson S, Fireman Z. Acute proctitis after a hot-water enema. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 1995;20:80-2.
  174. Stroud WD. Physical therapy in cardiovascular disease. In Principles and Practice of Physical Therapy. Hagerstown, MD: W. F. Prior Company 1:21, Chapter 13, 1932.
  175. Swank GM, Deitch EA. Role of the gut in multiple organ failure: bacterial translocation and permeability changes. World J Surg. 1996;20:411-7.
  176. Sykes EM Jr. Colon perforation in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg. 1984;147:410-3.
  177. Szunyorgh B. Enema injuries. Amer J Proctol 1958; 9:303.
  178. Taffinder NJ, Tan E, Webb IG, McDonald PJ. Retrograde commercial colonic hydrotherapy. Colorectal Dis. 2004 Jul;6(4):258-60.
  179. Tan MP, Cheong DM. Life-threatening perineal gangrene from rectal perforation following colonic hydrotherapy: a case report. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1999;28:583-5.
  180. Texas Attorney General. Attorney General Abbott Sues, Colonic Hydrotherapy Providers For Abuse Of Medical Devices; One Death Reported. December 1, 2003. Internet access on June 1, 2004.
  181. Thien FC. Chamomile tea enema anaphylaxis. Med J Aust 2001;175:54.
  182. Tod AM, Stringer E, Levery C, Dean J, Brown J. Rectal irrigation in the management of functional bowel disorders: a review. Br J Nurs. 2007 Jul 26-Aug 8;16(14):858-64.
  183. Topcu T. [Colorectal perforation due to self administered retrograde enema] [Article in Turkish] Ulus Travma Derg 2003;9:297-9.
  184. Trautlein JJ, Mann WJ. Anaphylactic shock caused by yellow dye (FD & C No. 5 and FD & C No. 6) in an enema (case report). Ann Allergy 1978;41:28-9.
  185. Triadafilopoulos G, Simms RW, Goldenberg DL. Bowel dysfunction in fibromyalgia syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 1991;36:59-64.
  186. Turell R. Laceration to anorectum incident to enema. Arch Surg 1960;81:953.
  187. Tyrrell, Charles. The Royal Road to Health. 94th edition (New York: Author, 1913).
  188. Unger K. [Destruction of the colon due to a wrong enema (authors transl)] [Article in German] Zentralbl Chir 1978;103:171-6.
  189. Van den Berg MM, Geerdes BP, Heij HA, Benninga MA. [Defecation disorders in children: treatment with colonic irrigation through an appendicostomy] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Feb 19;149(8):418-22. Dutch.
  190. Van der Berg MM, Geerdes BP, Heij HA, et al. Defecation disorders in children: treatment with colonic irrigation through an appendicostomy. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2005;149(8):418-422.
  191. Van Hoogdalem E, de Boer AG, Breimer DD. Pharmacokinetics of rectal drug administration, Part I. General considerations and clinical applications of centrally acting drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 1991;21:11-26.
  192. Veale D, Kavanagh G, Fielding JF, Fitzgerald O. Primary fibromyalgia and the irritable bowel syndrome: different expressions of a common pathogenetic process. Br J Rheumatol 1991;30:220-2.
  193. Waddington E.G., Colon Therapy. J August 1940.
  194. Walker M., DPM, MEDICAL JOURNALIST REPORT OF INNOVATIVE BIOLOGICS: Value of Colon Hydrotherapy verified by medical professionals prescribing it. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients: August / September 2000 (#205/206)
  195. Walker M, Warner BW, Brilli RJ, Jacobs BR. Cardiopulmonary compromise associated with milk and molasses enema use in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterology Nutr 2003;36:144-8.
  196. Walton DM, Thomas DC, Aly HZ, Short BL. Morbid hypocalcemia associated with phosphate enema in a six-week-old infant. Pediatrics 2000; 106:E37.
  197. Watson JE, Tagupa ET. Suicide attempt by means of aspirin enema. Ann Pharmacother 1994;28:467-9.
  198. Wechisser EC, Putnam TC. Perforating injuries of the rectum and sigmoid colon. J Trauma 1962;2:596.
  199. Weisenberg TH, Alpers BJ. Physical therapy in nervous diseases. In Principles and Practice of Physical Therapy. Hagerstown, MD: W. F. Prior Company 1:8, Chapter 16, 1932.
  200. Whorton JC. Inner Hygiene: Constipation and the Pursuit of Health in Modern Society. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  201. Whorton J (2000). Civilisation and the colon: constipation as the disease of diseases. BMJ 321 (7276)
  202. Williams, F. A., Jr., Bright, R. M., Daniel, G. B., Hahn, K. A., and Patton, S. A. The use of colonic irrigation to control fecal incontinence in dogs with colostomies. Vet.Surg. 1999;28(5):348-354.
  203. Wiltsie James W., A.B., M.D., Chronic intestinal toxemia and its treatment with special reference to colonic therapy. Wm. Wood & Co. Baltimore 1938.
  204. Wolfe WG, Silver D. Rectal perforation with profuse bleeding following an enema. Case report and review of the literature. Arch Surg 1966;92:715-7.
  205. Yerkes EB, Rink RC, King S, Cain MP, Kaefer M, Casale AJ (2001). Tap water and the Malone antegrade continence enema: a safe combination? Journal of Urology 166 (4): 1476-8. PMID 11547116.
  206. Zavras GM, Papadaki PJ, Kounis NG, Vasilakos PJ, Artinopoulos CJ, Koutsojannis C, Panayiotakis GS, Goudevenos JA, Fezoulidis IB. Electrocardiographic changes in elderly patients during small bowel enema. Invest Radiol 1996;31:256-60.
  207. Ziskind A, Gelis SS. Water intoxication following tap water enemas. J Dis Child 1958; 96:699-704.